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Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial medication used to treat uncomplicated cases of malaria and for chemoprophylaxis in specific regions. It is a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). It regulates the activity of the immune system, which may be overactive in some conditions. Hydroxychloroquine can modify the underlying disease process rather than simply treating the symptoms.

Why is this medication prescribed?

Hydroxychloroquine’s primary claim to fame is its effectiveness in treating and preventing malaria, a disease caused by parasites transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Beyond its antimalarial prowess, it’s lauded for its ability to mitigate symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, both autoimmune diseases where the body’s defense system turns against itself, causing inflammation and damage to various body parts. Hydroxychloroquine operates by diminishing the immune system’s overactivity, providing relief to those afflicted by these conditions.

How should this medicine be used?

Typically, hydroxychloroquine is administered orally, with doses varying based on the condition being treated. In the realm of malaria prevention, it’s often recommended to start the regimen a couple of weeks before potential exposure, continue during the stay in the hazardous area, and extend for several weeks post-exposure. For chronic conditions like lupathy and rheumatoid arthritis, the dosage is calibrated based on the patient’s body weight and the severity of symptoms, with adjustments made over time to strike the right balance between efficacy and side effects.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before embarking on a hydroxychloroquine regimen, it’s crucial to consult with a healthcare provider, disclosing any history of heart disease, psoriasis, blood disorders, or eye problems. This drug can interact with other medications and has the potential to exacerbate certain conditions. Regular monitoring, including eye exams and heart function tests, may be recommended to preemptively address any adverse effects.


The dosage of hydroxychloroquine is not one-size-fits-all; it’s meticulously tailored to individual needs. For adults battling malaria, a typical initial dose might be higher, followed by smaller doses at specified intervals. Those dealing with rheumatoid arthritis or lupus may see their dosages adjusted based on therapeutic response and side effects. It’s imperative to adhere to the prescribed regimen and consult with a healthcare professional before making any changes.

What side effects can this medication cause?

While hydroxychloroquine is a beacon of hope for many, it’s not without its potential drawbacks. Common side effects include:

  • headache
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea
  • diarrhea
  • stomach pain
  • vomiting
  • difficulty hearing
  • ringing in the ears
  • hair loss
  • hair color changes

More severe, though less common, side effects involve vision changes, muscle weakness, severe stomach aches, and heart complications. It’s essential to report any adverse reactions to a healthcare provider to ensure prompt management.

What should I know about the storage and disposal of this medication?

Hydroxychloroquine should be stored at room temperature, away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom), and out of reach of children. The disposal of medications should be done thoughtfully, ideally through take-back programs. If these are not available, mixing the medication with unpalatable substances and sealing it in a container before throwing it in the trash is recommended. Flushing down the toilet is discouraged unless specifically instructed by the healthcare provider.

What other information should I know?

When prescribed hydroxychloroquine, maintaining open lines of communication with healthcare providers is key. This includes discussing any existing conditions, potential drug interactions, and side effects. Additionally, it’s important to keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body’s response to hydroxychloroquine.

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